Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Evidence Gap Map: 2020 update

Published date: 01 November 2021
Last modified date: 01 November 2021

The evidence map facilitates access to the best available evidence on the effectiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) provision and promotion for households, communities, schools and health facilities in low- and middle-income countries. It also highlights where there are gaps in the evidence. The map includes 359 completed and 24 ongoing impact evaluations, 43 completed systematic reviews and 2 systematic review protocols. The 2020 map update is based on a comprehensive search for published and unpublished studies and trial registries undertaken for the April 2018 map update, together with searches for registered trials and systematic reviews which had been completed by March 2020. The 2020 map update reorganised intervention categories around demand- and supply-side and incorporated legal reform as an intervention category. The 2018 map updated the scope of the initial 3ie WASH evidence map (published in 2014) to incorporate WASH promotional mechanisms and technologies, as well as to include behavioural outcomes systematically and WASH in health facilities. The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) provided funding for the 2018 update. The initial 2014 evidence map was funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with technical support from the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. The map was prepared by Hugh Sharma Waddington, Hannah Chirgwin, Duae Zehra, and Sandy Cairncross. Coding for the 2018 update was done with assistance of Raj Popat, Miriam Berretta, Hastings Chipungu, and Abubeker Tadesse. Yashaswini PrasannaKumar contributed substantially to the initial WASH evidence map.


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