The Effect of Transparency and Accountability Interventions in the Extractive Sectors: An Evidence Gap Map

Published date: 10 October 2019
Last modified date: 10 October 2019


This map displays interventions that seek to improve transparency and accountability in the extractives sector through compliance with global transparency initiatives, provision of information to citizens, citizen monitoring and participation and environmental and financial audits. The map includes 18 impact evaluations and two systematic reviews. Eight impact evaluations used experimental designs and 10 used quasi-experimental designs. We critically appraised the two systematic reviews. All studies in the map were published after 2013.

Main findings

  • The evidence base in the field of transparency and accountability is very scarce. Majority of the studies assessed the effects of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) on a variety of outcomes relating to government and private sector performance.
  • Absolute gaps exist on interventions introducing third-party financial and environmental audits.
  • There are few clusters pf evidence for some intervention and outcome combinations of citizen and community engagement.

Implications for policy, programming, research investments

  • There is a need to fund more rigorous studies that evaluate the effectiveness of transparency and accountability interventions using the counterfactual approach.
  • Future studies should systematically map the international and national efforts to promote governance, and transparency and accountability initiatives in particular. 

Original map publication date: 10 October 2019
Current map date of publication: 10 October 2019

Online map citation: Rathinam, F, Finetti, J, Snilstveit, B, Siddiqui, Z, Chirgwin, H, Appell, R, Dickens, E and Gaarder, M, 2019. The effect of transparency and accountability interventions in the extractive sectors: an evidence gap map, 3ie Evidence Gap Map Report 1X. International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie). Available at:

Related 3ie publications

The effect of transparency and accountability interventions in the extractive sectors: an evidence gap map