Evidence maps


This EGM captures the evidence base for social and economic interventions, across all sectors, in Africa. The studies contained in this are drawn from 3ie’s Development Evidence Portal, which is the largest-of-its-kind repository of rigorous impact evaluations and systematic reviews in international development. Interventions are categorised according to the World Bank’s taxonomy of sectors, and outcomes are categorised according to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The map contains 1,267 impact evaluations and 634 systematic reviews.


This map displays interventions that seek to improve transparency and accountability in the extractives sector through compliance with global transparency initiatives, provision of information to citizens, citizen monitoring and participation and environmental and financial audits. The map includes 18 impact evaluations and two systematic reviews. Eight impact evaluations used experimental designs and 10 used quasi-experimental designs. We critically appraised the two systematic reviews. All studies in the map were published after 2013.

Since the first map was published in 2017, the evidence base has expanded significantly. This update covers evidence published between August 2016 and July 2018. The map comprises of 95 completed and 44 ongoing impact evaluations and 2 systematic review protocols, totalling 141 studies. The authors used the same outcomes and interventions framework as the original map.

Main findings

This map provides an overview of existing studies and gaps on the effects of performance measurement and management (PMM) systems interventions. These systems are designed to measure and improve the performance of healthcare delivery systems and their effective functioning is important for creating high-quality primary healthcare services in L&MICs.
Authors of this map identified published and unpublished studies between 2000 and mid-28, including 137 impact evaluations and 18 systematic reviews.

We systematically compiled and mapped evidence on agroforestry impacts in low- and middle-income countries (L&MICs) according to a framework that included four broad practice types (agrisilvicultural, silvopastoral, agrosilvopastoral, and agroforestry including insects/fish) and six intervention types (farmer capacity development, enhancing access to tree germplasm, community-level campaigning and advocacy, incentive provision, market linkage facilitation, and institutional and policy change) together with the thr

The evidence map facilitates access to the best available evidence on the effectiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) promotion for households, communities, school and health facilities in low- and middle-income countries. It also highlights where there are gaps in the evidence base.